Using a descriptive analysis approach, this paper seeks to identify key factors for a successful population policy in Egypt. For this purpose, the first section overviews eight leading international experiences in population to find the main contributors to the demographic transition in each of these experiences. Section 2 assesses Egypt’s management of the population file from 1930s to 2019 divided into six periods, to identify the main reasons for success or failure in each period separately. Finally, the third section compares the most important features of the Egyptian experience with those of the international experiences, concluding by referring to the preconditions for Egypt to have a successful and sustainable population policy, most importantly, sound governance of the population file. The section concludes with a proposed optimum institutional form.