This roundtable discussion highlighted the main findings of ECES research regarding the micro and macro factors behind modest R&D performance in Egypt’s pharmaceutical firms. At the micro level, an R&D strategy is evidently lacking, with firms leaning heavily towards development as opposed to basic or applied research. Moreover, there is virtually no collaboration either with other firms or with universities in research. At the macro level, public R&D expenditure remains meager, and the public R&D system lacks good governance. As such, the discussion aimed to draw relevant policy implications for placing Egypt on the new, long-sought growth trajectory.