The quality of basic education in Egypt is suffering. Despite repeated reform efforts, there are very serious embedded shortcomings. The main question raised by this research paper is to what extent implementing a greater degree of decentralization in the basic education system in Egypt can lead to an improvement in overall quality. Through a meta-analysis of empirical studies, dealing with the evaluation of international experiences of education decentralization, in terms of impact on efficiency, effectiveness, equity, pertinence and relevance; and through a stakeholders’ analysis of main influential parties to the decentralization decision in Egypt, the study makes a case for decentralization. A number of prerequisites for effective implementation are identified, including: capacity building for administrators, teachers’ training, orientation to parents, devolvement of genuine authority to school boards, and continued government support to disadvantaged communities.