Working Papers

Private Tutoring in Egypt: Quality Education in a Dead Lock between Low Income, Status, and Motivation

Publication Number: ECES-WP178-E

February, 2015

Author : Sebastian Ille

Type : Working Papers

Egypt is facing a major challenge regarding the quality of its primary education. One of the crucial problems of the Egyptian education system is private tutoring. Private tutoring is not to be considered negative per se if it is based on the student’s or parents’ motivation to improve knowledge about the subject, even for competitive reasons. However, this paper focuses on a form of private tutoring, where a teacher deliberately reduces his teaching quality and either directly or indirectly forces students to participate in his private classes. Based on a large and original dataset, the paper identifies the main driving forces for this type of private tutoring and uses them to develop an analytical model. This model serves to formulate and evaluate a set of policies, which will help reduce private tutoring and improve the quality of primary education in Egypt.