The single most important challenge facing policymakers in Egypt today is that of unemployment and creating jobs for the rapidly growing population. Not surprisingly, the government has made this issue the cornerstone of its reform effort. This emphasis is well placed. Unemployment is a waste of society’s human capital. It has direct adverse effects, especially on those with no physical assets. Further, a high concentration of unemployment among the educated youth can be destabilizing. This conference explored alternative ways to meet this challenge.