The purpose of this annual conference was to take stock of key reforms undertaken in Egypt in recent years and discuss reform prospects in areas such as macroeconomic and institutional reforms. In addition, the conference focused on two specific sectors; namely the healthcare and energy sectors. At the macroeconomic and institutional levels, the conference addressed topics such as growth, distribution, and poverty reduction; monetary policy and exchange rate regimes; trade liberalization and competitiveness; unemployment and job creation; and the new pension system reform. On growth and poverty reduction, specific policies and strategies were highlighted that would simultaneously lead to high and sustained GDP growth, more equitable distribution and a rapid reduction in poverty. Under monetary policy, the main object was to present a review of the salient developments in the structure of monetary policy in Egypt starting 1991 to 2005. As for unemployment and job creation, a comprehensive assessment was conducted of the impact of diverse employment policies on job creation in Egypt. Lastly, the newly proposed pension system was explained in detail and specific proposals were offered to ensure that the new system benefits all concerned parties including employees, employers and the national economy.At the sectoral level, the conference focused on the health care and energy sectors. The purpose was to assess each sector in three areas: financing, organization and policy management. With respect to the health sector, the conference explored alternative financing methods to help mobilize additional funds for health care development; analyzed the pros and cons of decentralization; and discussed ways of promoting public-private partnerships and improving public health management and performance. As to the energy sector, an analysis and forecast was conducted for Egypt's energy resources of oil and natural gas. An investigation was also conducted of the impact of removing energy subsidies in Egypt on energy intensive industries.This large-scale project involved commissioning several research papers, the findings of which were discussed in a large two-day conference in Cairo. Research papers were also published as an edited volume in collaboration with the American University in Cairo Press.